By Mir Bahmanyar
Following the Soviet invasion in 1979, the Mujahideen defenders of Afghanistan constructed and strengthened many usual cave structures to exploit as provide bases and protecting positions. The Taliban and Al Qaeda additional reinforced those positions within the Nineteen Nineties. Following the occasions of September eleven, 2001, those cave structures have once again come to prominence and websites equivalent to Tora Bora and Zhawar Kili have featured in information headlines world wide. This name offers an research of those caves and underground platforms, and discusses the U.S.-led Coalition's tactical method of dislodging the enemy from those fortified positions.
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Following the Soviet invasion in 1979, the Mujahideen defenders of Afghanistan constructed and bolstered many common cave platforms to take advantage of as provide bases and protecting positions. The Taliban and Al Qaeda additional reinforced those positions within the Nineties. Following the occasions of September eleven, 2001, those cave platforms have once again come to prominence and websites similar to Tora Bora and Zhawar Kili have featured in information headlines around the globe.
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Extra resources for Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004: Mountain strongholds of the Mujahideen, Taliban & Al Qaeda (Fortress, Volume 26)
Be aware of personal and group rivalries and conflicts as they can lead to problems within Mujahideen groups. ● Take full advantage of the cultural and linguistic identities between insurgent and government personnel. qxd 11/3/09 12:36 Page 40 Defending a cave complex Images of the Tora Bora region from IKONOS. , attempted to destroy the hard-core elements of Al Qaeda, including Osama bin Laden, during Operation Enduring Freedom. " (Space Imaging) 40 Defensive operations of cave/bunker/tunnel complexes would remain relatively the same throughout 1979–2004, with the notable exception of better technology available regarding shoulder-launched weapons such as the American-manufactured Stinger missile that has had an excellent rate of success in downing Soviet aircraft.
What may have worked for a unit defending the heavily developed tunnel systems at Zhawar Kili may not have worked for those defending Tora Bora or any other area. The report essentially explains that good tactics or bad tactics depend on the area, the group, its leader and luck. No standard operating procedures existed. It does not, however, dismiss the improvements that would naturally develop during any war. It concludes: “Mujahideen success was closely linked to the amount of weapons and ammunition they had at their disposal.
Usually several escape routes exist. 3) Vertical ventilation shafts throughout the complex ensure adequate air supply. 4) Rooms within the structure tend to be primarily arms and ammunition caches but at Zhawar Kili more elaborate uses were made of the complex. qxd 11/3/09 12:37 Page 56 take out the attacking aircraft with the British Blowpipe shoulder-fired missiles and train the Mujahideen. After climbing a mountain and firing 13 Blowpipe missiles to no avail, a Pakistani captain and his NCO were severely wounded by the attacking aircraft.
Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004: Mountain strongholds of the Mujahideen, Taliban & Al Qaeda (Fortress, Volume 26) by Mir Bahmanyar